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СИНТАКСИЧЕСКИЕ ФУНКЦИИ ИНФИНИТИВА В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ И СПОСОБЫ ИХ ПЕРЕВОДА НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Инфинитив может выступать в предложении как подлежащее, часть сказуемого, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство.
І. Определите формы инфинитива.
to choose, to be found, to have broken, to be reading, to have been broken, to have read, to be asked, to hold.
II. Образуйте формы инфинитива от следующих глаголов.
to increase, to consider, to speak, to put, to connect, to give, to write, to take, to build.
Образец: to read – to be read, to be reading, to have been read,
to have been reading.
ІІІ. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива.
1. To study this phenomenon requires much knowledge. 2. Our task is to obtain a new mixture. 3. The new apparatus was to control all the temperature changes. 4. They hope to be sent to the conference. 5. The engineer was asked to design this devise. 6. We have to built atomic power stations to satisfy all power needs. 7. The process to be analysed in this article is known as ionization.
1. We are happy to have taken part in this construction. 2. They were glad to have been given such an interesting assignment. 3. To operate new flexible line become possible thanks to computers. 4. To operate new flexible lines workers have to get special training. 5. The new flexible line is to operate at numerous plants. 6. The flexible line to operate at the plant will be installed in some months. 7. The task of the computers is to operate the whole line properly. 8. I am glad to be listening to this report today. 9. I remember to have been making this test before this experiment was fulfilled.
1. To increase the range of modern radar became through continuous improvement of the equipment available. 2. To increase the range of modern radar scientists had to make numerous experiments. 3. To improve the accuracy of radar meant to expand its usefulness. 4. To improve the accuracy of radar a number of investigation were made. 5.To know the principle of modern radar specialists must thoroughly study radio and electronics. 6. To know the principles of modern radar is of great value for pilots, seamen and meteorologists.
IV. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык предложения с инфинитивом в начале предложения. Помните, что инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели переводится на русский язык со словами: чтобы; для того, чтобы .
1. To translate such texts we use special dictionaries. 2. To understand this problem you must learn the theory. 3. To built the power station on this river means to supply the surrounding villages with power. 4. To complete this work they will stay in the laboratory. 5. To built the country’s economy by conventional methods meant to lead it back. 6. To know physics well you must work hard. 7. To obtain an accurate result you must know the values. 8. To do work an object must have energy. 9. To determine the exact location of any target they made accurate measurements of range, altitude and azimuth.
V.Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод инфинитива в составе именного сказуемого и в модальном значении.
to be + Infinitive (именное сказуемое)
Our aim is to prove the results.
Наша цель (чтобы) подтвердить результаты.
1. Our plan is to improve the device. 2. One of the methods is to use this equation. 3. His idea is to repeat the experiment more accurately. 4. Their task was to complete the measurements. 5. His plan was to go on with the research. 6. A natural desire of people is to study. 7. To live is to work. 8. His aim is to study this phenomenon. 9. Their purpose was to obtain a new alloy.
to be + Infinitive (модальное значение)
We are to prove the results.
Мы должны подтвердить результаты.
1. This method is to improve it. 2. We are to use this method. 3. He is to repeat the experiment more accurately. 4. They were to complete the measurements. 5. He was to go on with the research. 6. They are to study English to read special literature. 7. They were to prepare all chemicals necessary for experiments. 8. This chemical reaction was to express the effect of reacting substances.
VI. Переведите на русский язык. Обратите внимание на то, что пассивный инфинитив функции определения переводится определительным придаточным предложением, начинающимся словом который с оттенком долженствования или модальности.
The experimental data to be discussed…
Экспериментальные данные, которые будут обсуждаться
(которые должны быть обсуждены)…
1. The elements to be studied… 2. The systems to be tested… 3. The energy to be generated… 4. The instruments to be used… 5. The data to be obtained…
1. Mars will probably be one of the first worlds to be reached by men. 2. There are many things to be taken into consideration when designing a spaceship. 3. Now we shall discuss the system of units to be employed later in our discussion. 4. The chromo sphere of the Sun may now be observed at all times by means of a spectrohelioscope to be described later. 5. The alloy to be used for this purpose will contain about 20% of iron. 6. The power supply to be utilizes inexpensive components and will easily fit into the smallest workplace since it measures 3 by 4 by 6 inches. 7. Many ores to be found in this district are of great value to the industry. 8. The new applications of ultrasonics to be discussed by the engineers will considerably improve the quality of production.
VII. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на функции инфинитива.
1. The first satellite to be designed and developed in England was Ariel 3 which was successfully put into orbit on May 5, 1967. 2. To say that an object is traveling at a speed of 20 ft/sec (feet per second) does not describe the motion completely. 3. The choice of radioisotope to be used as the source is determined by the thickness of the product to be measured. 4. The penetrating power of this new radiation was an obvious point to investigate. 5. The first attempt to measure the speed of light was undertaken by Galileo in a very primitive way. 6. As we have seen earlier in this chapter, to cause thermonuclear reactions extremely high temperatures are required. 7. The property of matter to resist any change in its motion is called inertia. 8. The object of business is to make a profit. 9. They had promised us to draw the design of new machine. 10. To defend the country is the sacred duty of every citizen of Ukraine. 11. The duty of every student is to master at least one foreign language. 12. To form molecules, atoms can combine together. 13. The ability to solve problems is the surest test of one’s mastering of a subject. 14. To know the principles of modern radar specialists must study radio and electronics.
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