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ФУНКЦИИ ГЛАГОЛА «to have»
I. Определить различные функции глагола « t o h a v e»и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. An electron is very small and it has a very small mass.2. No one been able to see an atom, not even under the most powerful microscopes.3. In the application of electronic instruments the engineer must have knowledge of characteristics.4. The first cosmic flight shows man’s abilities have no limit, man has only to use his intelligence in order to create conditions under which his talents can develop.5. It has been found all the great variety of substances known to chemistry are different combinations of chemical elements.6. Almost all these substances have been found an earth and a great many have been discovered spectroscopically in the sun and the stars.7. In arranging the elements in the periodic system Mendeleyev had to leave gaps. 8. The had to do a good deal of work last month. 9.In summer she has to take her entrance exams.
I. Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. Он умеет говорить по-английски. 2. Я мог бегать очень быстро, когда я был мальчиком. 3. Я могу помочь им.4. Эти книги можно взять в библиотеке. 5. Я должен ехать туда завтра. 6. Я должен встать рано. 7. Ты можешь взять эту книгу. 8. Они должны выучить этот урок. 9. Можно я открою окно? 10. Вам не нужно приходить так. 11. Вы должны быть осторожнее.
II.Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1.You should increase the width of the bridge.2. Control may be simply mechanical, electrical, electronic or a combination.3. Bacteria may exist even on good products without any harmful action.4. One ought to remember that Lodygin was the first inventor of the incandescent lamp.5. You need to go to the chemical laboratory to carry out this experiment.6. Thus we were obliged to use gaseous heavy hydrogen for our experiments.
1.You ought to know that since all meridians and the equator are great circles, the minute scales on these elements of the map may be used to measure lengths.2. One ought to be careful when experimenting with inflammable materials.3. Careful attention must be paid to the construction of this unit.4. One can calculate the distances between ions crystals if ionic is known.5. We need materials capable of working in diverse condition for this experiment.6. We also need machines that would trace the entire process of machining.7. What we need is not merely manipulators which can take up a workpiece and pass it on, but robots which can identify objects, their position in space, etc.
III. Скажите и напишите следующие предложения в Past Future Indefinite.
She must read this book.
She had to read this book.
She will have to read this book.
1. The scientists must study the composition of this substance. 2. The engineer must know well the properties of engineering materials. 3. The giant molecules must be composed of large numbers of smaller units. 4. We must use a telescope in order to see certain stars. 5. Everybody must study his specialty very well. 6. We must widely use computers in different branches of science and engineering. 7. A meteorologist must make about one million of operations for the accurate forecasting of the weather. 8. A computer must give information.
She can play tennis well.
She could play tennis well.
She will be able to play tennis well.
1. They can show their achievements. 2. This example can illustrate these figures. 3. The first electronic computer can work very quickly. 4. Theory cannot exist without practice. 5. A robot can simulate the functions of a human being. 6. These self-learning cybernetic systems can collect various data. 7. An automatic pilot can control an air-plane. 8. The machine can solve differential equations. 9. Water can exist as a gas and as a solid.
You may take this book.
You were allowed to take this book.
You will be allowed to take this book.
1. They may continue the experiment. 2. We may divide electronic computers into two groups. 3. A computer may transform any new information into a more useful form. 4. The molecule may overcome the force of attraction. 5. The worker may measure the efficiency of the motor. 6. This scientists may investigate new means of production. 7. He may use these scientific books for his report.
IV. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на формы эквивалентов
1.Using radioactive isotopes, biologists and agriculturalists will be able to carry out research impossible by any other method.2. Today machines have to withstand such tremendous stresses and to be able of such complex motions that complicated and specialized calculation taking hundreds of factors into account are needed in the design of quite a simple machine like a motor-car engine.3. In the shortest time possible we are to start production new generations of machines and equipment, which would allow us to increase productivity several times and to find a way the application of advanced technologies.4. Our laboratory has to launch a new programme this month.5. This scientist was allowed to take park in all-union conference on automobile designing.6. The technologist is to solve practical problems.7. She is allowed to use this new device for testing her design.
V.Перевести на русский язык, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с P a s s i v e I n d e f i n i t e.
1. All the preparations should be completed in a week.2. The engines should be made as simple as possible.3. Electricity can be transmitted over long distances.4. The TV set should be taken to the shop.5. Nature gas can be used instead of gas made from coal.6. Heat cannot be weighed.
1. At ordinary temperatures and over temperature intervals which are not too great, specific heat may be considered constant.2. Surface tension may be expressed in any of energy per unit of area.3. Careful attention must be paid to the construction of the diagram and to algebraic sing when using this equation.4. Heat is a form of energy and must be measured in the units in which energy is measured.5. Parts for this submarine could not be ordered, they had to be designed, nothing could be copied from another ship’s engine, for this was first of its kino.6. The oil may be stored in the tanks from which ships called oil-tankers carry it to many countries.
VI.Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с P e r f e c t I n d e f I n I t e.
1. He cannot have broken the device.2. He must have made a mistake in calculations that the experiment failed.3. This method could have been more effective in our experiment.4. You should have been more attentive, there are so many mistakes in your exercises.5. This law must have been discovered by some famous mathematician.6. This student must have been studing physics for a long time.
1. You should have tested the device more carefully considering its importance.2. When a magnet is broken in two, there will be two new poles, these poles must have existed in the original magnet but without producing external effects since they neutralized each other.3. Our teacher may have used quite a different formula in solving this problem.4. He cannot have forgotten this method of integration.
VII.Перевести на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их
1. This law must have been discovered by some famous mathematician.2. His theory is to be applied in mathematics.3. He cannot have forgotten this method of integration.4. Our comrades must be now preparing for their exam in higher mathematics.5. The people had to study and learn, to acquire technical skills and to master the art of management.6. All the units of a new tractor can be produced at this plant.7. This scientist was allowed to take part in the all-union conference on automobile designing.8. We were obliged to use gaseous heavy hydrogen for our experiments.9. The engines should be made as simple as possible.10 He must have carried out this experiment.
1. The calculation was to have been done in a precise way.2. Our teacher may have used quite a different formula in solving this problem.3. She may use this new device for testing her desing.4. We shall have to work out an experiment in which we shall be able to keep the particles in the plasma.5. Surface tension may be expressed in any unit of energy per unit of area.6. You should have changed the current strength at all points of the circuit.7. We are to effect a thermonuclear reaction not in the form of an explosion but as a controller and calm process. 8. Many difficulties had to be overcome in the construction of the first space rockets.
VIII.Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы.
1. The calculation was to have been done in a precise way.2. The laws of motion to be analyzed in this text must have been formulated by I.Newton.3. Solutions can be found to many applied problems in solar-energy uses for industry and the home.4. That gas can be turned into a liquid by pressure is known to everyone.5. An important characteristic of radiation is that it can occur in a vacuum.
1. In certain cases the Doppler effect may also be used to detect rotation of a star.2. Reliability must be thought of as a physical property of a device which behaves in accordance with certain physical laws.3. For other machines, the address bus may have to be decoded to produce an equivalent signal.4. A helicopter is able to rise vertically only because its propeller sets a stream of air into downward motion.5. So far we are unable to describe the properties and behave our of particles for the simple reason that we don’t yet know what their properties depend on.6. In order that we may be able to find our how efficient the engine is, we must measure the amount of energy that we put into it and compare this with the energy that it produces.
к теме «модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты»
1. Harmful – вредный
2. incandescent – лампа накаливания
6. forecasting of the weather-прогноз погоды
8. trance-след, черта
9. manipulator-оператор, манипулятор
10. submarine-подводная лодка
11. external forces-внешние силы
14. surface tension-поверхностное напряжение
15. per unit of area-на единицу площади
16. currеnt strength-сила тока
17. circuit-электрическая цепь
20. to detect-открывать, обнаруживать
22. address bus-ядерная шина
23. to dec de-расшифровать, декодировать
ФУНКЦИИ ГЛАГОЛОВ t o h a v e , t o b e
I. Укажите функцию глагола to have и переведите на русский язык.
1. They have to determine this substance. 2. We have just studied the motion of a body. 3. One should know that a surface has but two dimensions length and breadth. 4. Wait till the cooling system has been filled in with water. 5. Metals are of great importance for our life for they have great number of useful properties. 6. The earth may have a shape similar to the shape of a ball. 7. I have not any idea of how to group these minerals. 8. In the Periodic System all the elements have equal rights.
1. All molecules have the same average energy at any given temperature. 2. In the order to make a shock wave, one has to liberate energy very rapidly. 3. Hooke’s Law states that a body acted upon by an external force has a deformation proportional to the stress. 4. In the last thirty years, vast improvements in size, speed and capabilities of computers have taken place. 5. Current transformers are used wherever high voltage current has to be metered, because of the difficulty of providing adequate in the meter itself. 6. When the physicist has to deal with a new phenomenon, he often has recourse to the idea of the field. 7. He will have to understand engineering tables and formulas and apply them in his work.
II. Укажите функцию глагола to be и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. All the achievements of modern science are being used in modern production processes now. 2. The industrial development of the nineteenth century was a change towards automatic operation. 3. Mechanization was limited to individual processes. 4. The two cars were traveling at the same rate and reached the place of destination at the same time. 5. Many experiments are to be made to increase the engine efficiency. 6. This gigantic plan is to be completed in the short period of five years. 7. The form of energy most required by us is mechanical energy. 8. There are four factors to consider in the design of this reflector.
1. The laws of motion to be analyzed in text are known to have been formulated by I. Newton. 2. You are to test the behavior of newly-developed plastic in all temperature conditions. 3. Electrical density is the quantity of electricity on each square centimeter of surface. 4. At the start of its flight, while the rocket is moving slowly, the rocket motor is a very inefficient device. 5. If the alloy is to be manufactured in wrought forms, the total percentage of alloying elements is seldom more than six or seven per cent, although in easting alloys appreciably higher percentages are frequently used. 6. When the system of more than one force is to be solved, each force is individually resolved into its component forces. 7. The open end of the tube is connected to the apparatus the pressure within which is to be measured.
III. Укажите функции глаголов to be и to have и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. One of the most important things for the pilot to know is how high he is flying. 2. A major problem is to better automate inspection, quality, control, information system. 3. We have seen how the electrons are arranged in rings around the nucleus of an atom. 4. Electrons are free to move about in the spaces between the atoms. 5. In the room there were several motors the efficiency of which was to be measure.
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