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ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЙ ОБОРОТ

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  2. III. Выполните по образцу (в рамке) упражнение, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты. При этом объедините два предложения в одно с инфинитивным оборотом (см. образец).
  3. VII. Особенности оборота оружия и специальных средств в негосударственных (частных) охранных (сыскных) организациях и негосударственных образовательных учреждениях
  4. А) Предложения с деепричастными оборотами
  5. Автоматизация документооборота
  6. Автоматизация документооборота компании
  7. Агрегатный индекс физического объема товарооборота
  8. Алгоритм расчета товарооборота.
  9. Амортизація інших необоротних активів
  10. Амортизація інших необоротних матеріальних активів
  11. Анализ обеспеченности оборотными средствами
  12. Анализ оборачиваемости оборотных средств (анализ деловой активности организации)
существительное в притяжательном падеже   + герундий
или притяжательное местоимение

Переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением, которое вводится союзами: что; то, что; о том, чтобы; в том, что.

 

1. We all know of their designing a new type of semiconductor radio set.

Мы знаем, что они проектируют новый тип радиоприемника на полупроводниках.

2. They read of Yablochkov’s having found a brilliant solution to the problem of using the electric arc for lighting.

Они прочитали то, что Яблочков нашел блестящее решение проблемы применения электрической дуги для освещения.

3. Comrade Smirnov’s taking part in the development of new cooling system was of great help to us.

То, что Смирнов принял участие в усовершенствовании новой охладительной системы, очень помогло нам.

 

V. Переведите предложения, определив функцию герундия.

1. We know of Newton’s having spent more than 20 years of scientific thinking before finaly formulating them on paper. 2. The motion of this body was changed because of its having been acted upon by an external force. 3. Many scientific discoveries proceeded Newton’s stating his laws of motion. 4. Newton’s having stated his laws of motion is very important for modern science. 5. By studying Newton’s laws of motion we learn that they are applied in our daily life as well. 6. Principia’s having been written in such a short time was due to its author’s great previous work. 7. The Principia’s having been published brought Newton world fame. 8. We knew nothing of this device being broken.

 

VI. Переведите предложения, определив функцию герундия.

I

1. The world’s first nuclear power station in Obninsk began generating electricity in 1954. 2. In fact converting kinds of fuels into electricity is not economic enough. 3. The idea of utilizing the energy of oceans is not new, but tidal stations are still few. 4. Recently scientists have succeeded in creating new kinds of generators for converting heat directly into light. 5. This machine-tool is capable of running at very high-speeds. 6. They began building houses of stones.

II

1. The student’s completing the experiment on time was very important. 2. Our aim is improving the results. 3. Electrons escaping begin when the cathode is heated to a high temperature. 4. They have stopped discussing the problem. 5. I remember having been the problem yet. 7. A barometer is an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. 8.People began studying higher mathematics in the 17th century. 9. The teacher insisted on our carrying out that experiment in the laboratory.

III

1. Students don’t like being asked. 2. Do you like listening to anybody or being listened to? 3. He relied on his paper being discussed tomorrow. 4. He insisted on his device having been tested.

 

Помните, что слово с окончанием -ingв начале предложения может быть герундием в функции подлежащего или причастием в функции обстоятельства.

 

Герундий (перед сказуемым) Причастие (перед подлежащим)
Testing the motor was necessary.- Испытать мотор было необходимо. Testing the motor, he saw…- Испытывая мотор, он увидел…

VII. Переведите предложения, определив функцию причастия или герундия в начале предложения.

1. Measuring the temperature we used these new thermometers. 2. Measuring the temperature will help us to determine the difference of the properties of these materials. 3.Escaping from the cathode, the electrons flow in space. 4. Escaping electrons will not begin till we heat the cathode. 5. Using a strong magnet we direct the particles to the necessary point. 6. Using a magnet is not necessary here. 7. Solving this problem he discovered a very interesting phenomenon. 8. Solving such problem helps us greatly.

VIII. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Помните разницу между герундием и отглагольным существительным. Отглагольное существительное употребляется:

1) с артиклем;

2) может иметь форму множественного числа

3) может определяться прилагательным.

1. A thorough mastering of a foreign language will assist you in many branches of work. 2. The designing of that building met all the necessary requirements. 3. The launchings of artificial moon satellites will make it possible to solve a number of problems in the field of space exploration. 4. The studying of higher mathematics starts with the so-called real consideration. 5. The launching of artificial satellites of the earth has been a great achievement of world science.

 

П Р И Ч А С Т И Е I, II

Вид Причастие I Действительный залог Причастие II Страдательный залог
Неопределенный Non Perfect возрастающий increasing возраставший возрастая увеличиваемый increased увеличенный возросший который возрос
Перфектный Perfect having increased увеличив  
Страдательный залог  
Неопределенный Non Perfect Being increased который увеличили  
Перфектный Perfect having been increased после увеличения  

The boiling water changes into steam.- Кипящая вода превращается в пар.

 

They are applying these methods.- Они применяют эти методы.

Being a good conductor of electricity copper is used in electrical devices.- Являясь хорошим проводником электричества, медь применяется в электроприборах.

The problem so explained was easily understood.- Проблема, которую объяснили таким образом, была легко понята.

When cooled oxygen liquefies.- Когда кислород сжижается, он сжижается.

Ф у н к ц и и:

Определение Переводится с суффиксами –ущ, -ющ, -вш, -ш, определительным придаточным предложением Часть сказуемого переводится глаголом в личной форме Обстоятельство переводится деепричастным, придаточным предложением

 

I. Определите формы причастия:

having been made, being made, having made, making,;

being lost, having been caught, finding, doing, being broken, built, cut, prepared, having been prepared.

 

II.Образуйте все формы причастия от следующих глаголов:

(см. таблицу) to choose, to cut, to know, to finish, to help.

 

III. Переведите предложения с причастиемIв функции определения. Помните, что оно переводится с суффиксами –ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ, -вши.

I

1. People beginning to study languages often say that it is difficult to memorize words. 2.The boiling water changes into steam. 3. The water boiling in the vessel changes into steam. 4. We need devices improving the accuracy of measurements. 5. A molecule is a compound consisting of two or more atoms. 6. The boiling solution has neither colour nor odour. 7. The ocean surrounding this land gave birth to wonderful flora and fauna. 8. The engineers constructing the natural gas pipeline came across many difficulties.

 

Переведите на русский язык. Помните, что страдательное причастие Iпереводится часто определительным придаточным предложением.

II

 

1. The plant being built in our district will produce radio sets. 2. The natural gas pipeline being constructed lately by all European countries is one of the most important projects. 3. The man being sent into outer space is a highly qualified and experienced pilot. 4. The tools being tested once more showed accurate characteristics. 5.The tests being performed by our researches are very important. 6. Depending on the method being used for solving this problem, there exist several types of energy converters. 7. The speed of sound is affected by temperature, being increased in air by about 11 feet per sound for every degree rise in temperature on the Fahrenheit scale.

 

IV. Переведите предложения с причастием I в функции обстоятельства. Помните, что причастие I переводится деепричастием, придаточным предложением. Причастие I перфектное переводится деепричастием совершенного вида, оканчивающемся на –в; -вши.

1. Being very light, strong and noncorrosive, aluminum is an ideal construction metal. 2. Having released the energy in the form of radiation, man learned to use it for detecting various defects in metals. 3. When heating a magnet we lessen its magnetism. 4. While analyzing the quality of the alloy the engineer showed its negative properties. 5. Being offered no post in Russia, Kovalevskaya went abroad. 6. Having been insulated the wire may be used as conductor. 7. Being cooled in the air the metal hardened. 8. The metal cooled in the air, having been heated to a definite temperature in the furnace. 9. Having finished the test he put down the results.

 

V. Определите формы и функции причастия I. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.

1. The assistant preparing the solution does it very carefully. 2. The main thing manufactured in Britain up to the 17th century was woolen cloth. 3. The engineer delivering a report gave many interesting examples. 4. The house being built in this street will be our new hotel. 5. The metal being used in that experiment was titanium. 6. The performing this task is working successfully. 7. The electromagnetic theory being discussed by the scientists describes light as sound waves.

 

VI. Переведите предложения с причастием I в роли части сказуемого.

1. They were making this experiment from 11 to 3 p.m. 2. The pace of outer space research is growing rapidly. 3. Scientists are successfully developing quantum generators called lasers. 4. The students were being asked many questions. 5. Large centers are being set up for research in physics of elementary particles. 6. This apparatus is receiving telegrams. 7. Who is running this factory?

 

VII. Определите формы и функции причастия Iв следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

I

1. The student was asking an interesting question when the dean of our faculty came in. 2. The films being shown are of American production. 3. Having been typed the report was handed to the engineer. 4. The house being built in our street will soon be ready. 5. Having typed the report, the typist asked the engineer to see if there were any mistakes. 6. The man producing these parts is our best worker. 7. While delivering the lecture a famous scientist stressed some points in it. 8. Having used the appliance improved by a group of workers of our shop, we mechanized a number of operations. 9. When producing these articles the shop acquired a good reputation. 10. Having been produced these parts were sent to various factories. 11. While moving in space any object does work. 12. The flight of any object moving through the air depends upon the laws of aerodynamics.

II

Переведите предложения с причастием II в роли определения.

1. You have to repair the broken parts of that engine. 2. The part broken by you should be repaired at once. 3. We shall use instruments of improved design. 4. The method of work improved by this young worker will increase the output of our plant. 5. The plans proposed did not meet the requirements of our plant. 6. The method used depended upon the material selected. 7. In England the weight of luggage allowed varies with different railways. 8. The techniques applied must be discussed once more. 9. The results obtained are very good. 10. The substance heated changed its properties. 11. The results of the experiment achieved in the lab must be checked once more. 12.The data supplied by the “Cosmos” sputniks have enabled us to solve many technological problems.

VIII. Переведите предложения с причастием II в роли :

а) обстоятельства;

б) части сказуемого

I

1. When asked, the worker answered that he knew the subject very well. 2. Unless discussed, this new method must be used. 3. Ice melts when heated. 4. The instructions became perfectly understood, if translated. 5. If frozen, water becomes ice. 6. Subjected to high temperature, aluminium loses its strength rapidly. 7. Cooled the solution will be ready. 8. When mounted, the new device will help to mechanize a number of operations.

II

1. The lecture in physics was followed by a film. 2. The film has been followed by the lecture. 3. In this shop closed at 7 a.m.? 4. This laboratory work has been done successfully. 5. The plan was fulfilled in advance. 6. Transfer machines are considered to be the backbone of automation. 7. “A metal” is a bright solid that can be forged as has been formulated by M. Lomonosov. 8. We have provided our plants with various safety devices.

 

IX. Переведите предложения с причастием II с союзами. Помните, что такие предложения переводятся при помощи придаточных предложений с соответствующими союзами в функции обстоятельства:

when, while, unless, if, where, unless, though.

When hot the body emits infra-red radiation. – Когда тело раскалено, оно испускает инфракрасные лучи.

1. While translating the article I did not use the dictionary. 2. Unless wet wood burns well. 3. While in prison and exile V. Kuibyshev studied philosophy, the German language. 4. If applied in construction plastics offer advantages over other materials. 5. Though built the atomic power station required another thorough investigation of its technological parameters. 6. Ice melts if (it is) heated.

X. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Помните, что слова с суффиксом -ed, могут быть частью сказуемого, а также выступать в роли определения, обстоятельства.

I

1. When dissolved in cold water, the acids reacts very slowly. 2. The principal materials affected by magnetism are iron and steel. 3. The increased concentration of the ions of the water increases the effects caused by these ions. 4. Many of the metallic products, used extensively, are not single metals but alloys. 5. The energy lost by the hot water is equal to the energy transferred to the cold water.

II

1. When heated water changes into an invisible gas. 2. When evaporated water forms clouds. 3. Physical properties of water are used to define many physical constants and units. 4. Ice placed in a kettle over a fire expanded a little and melted. 5. Everybody knows that the Sun is the source of all energy stored in fuels.

 

XI.

1. Being asked to put down his ideas on paper, Newton did it in a very short period of time. 2. An external force applied to a body sets it in motion. 3. Having been published in 1687 the three laws of motion are still the basis for many scientific achievements. 4. Any applied force sets the body in motion. 5. It is known that some early satellites were burned up in flight having been set on wrong orbits. 6. The validity of the new theory is proved by the examples given below.

 


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