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B) minor types
Shortening (Contraction) consists in substituting a whole for a part. We may speak of graphical abbreviations (in written speech only) and lexical shortenings (a new word is made from a syllable (rarer, two) of the original word; a new word is made from the initial letters of a word group).
Sound-Imitation (Onomatopoeia) Words are made by imitating different kinds of sounds that may be produced by animals, birds, insects, human beings and inanimate objects.
Reduplication is doubling a stem, either without any phonetic changes or with a variation of the root-vowel or consonant
Back-Formation (Reversion) Instead of a noun made from a verb by affixation, a verb is produced from a noun by subtraction.
Blending (portmanteau words) is merging parts of words into one word.
Sound- and Stress-Interchange.
Lexical Meaning as a Linguistic Category
Language meaning: lexical (LM) and grammatical meaning (GM)
The main two types of language meaning: grammatical (refers our mind to relations between words and structures /constructions bearing upon their structural functions in the language-as-a system/.) and lexical (refers our mind to some concrete object, phenomenon (real or imaginary) of objective reality, to some concept). Both the lexical and grammatical meaning comprise the word meaning.
The definition of LM according to the referential approach
LM and its numerous aspects are studied by semaciology both synchronically and diachronically. In present-day linguistics there exist 2 approaches to the problem:
- the referential approach which formulates the essence of meaning by establishing the interdependence b/w LM, reality and thinking,
- the functional approach which studies the functions of a word in speech.
All major works on semantic theory are based on referential concepts of meaning. This approach distinguishes b/w the 3 components closely connected with meaning: the sound-form, the concept and the referent (that aspect of reality to which this linguistic sign refers). This referential model of meaning is represented as the so- called “basic triangle”.
Componental structure of LM
LM is a systematic whole made up of several structurally ordered elements. As man doesn’t register the reality like an impersonal apparatus, but reveals his attitude to reality, LM is a combination of 2 components: denotative which reproduces reality by correlating with a concept, connotative expressing the speaker’a attitude to the object named.
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